About solubility show

- Jan 14, 2019-

The chart shows solubility curves for some typical solid inorganic salts (temperature is in degrees Celsius i.e. kelvins minus 273). Many salts behave like barium nitrate and disodium hydrogen arsenate, and show a large increase in solubility with temperature. Some solutes (e.g., sodium chloride in water) exhibit solubility that is fairly independent of temperature. A few, such as calcium sulfate (gypsum) and cerium(III) sulfate, become less soluble in water as temperature increases. This is also the case for calcium hydroxide (portlandite), whose solubility at 70 °C is about half of its value at 25 °C. The dissolution of calcium hydroxide in water is also an exothermic process and obeys Le Chatelier's principle. A lowering of temperature will thus favor the dissolution heat elimination and increases the equilibrium constant of dissolution of Ca(OH)2, and so increase its solubility at low temperature. This temperature dependence is sometimes referred to as "retrograde" or "inverse" solubility. Occasionally, a more complex pattern is observed, as with sodium sulfate, where the less soluble decahydrate crystal loses water of crystallization at 32 °C to form a more soluble anhydrous phase.

The solubility of organic compounds nearly always increases with temperature. The technique of recrystallization, used for purification of solids, depends on a solute's different solubilities in hot and cold solvent. A few exceptions exist, such as certain cyclodextrins.