Henry's law is used to quantify the solubility of gases in solvents. The solubility of a gas in a solvent is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas above the solvent.
where kH is a temperature-dependent constant (for example, 769.2 L·atm/mol for dioxygen (O2) in water at 298 K), p is the partial pressure (atm), and c is the concentration of the dissolved gas in the liquid (mol/L).
The solubility of gases is sometimes also quantified using Bunsen solubility coefficient.
In the presence of small bubbles, the solubility of the gas does not depend on the bubble radius in any other way than through the effect of the radius on pressure (i.e., the solubility of gas in the liquid in contact with small bubbles is increased due to pressure increase by Δp = 2γ/r; see Young–Laplace equation).
Henry's law is valid for gases that do not undergo speciation on dissolution. Sieverts' law shows a case when this assumption does not hold.
The carbon dioxide solubility in seawater is also affected by temperature and by the carbonate buffer. The decrease of solubility of carbon dioxide in seawater when temperature increases is also an important retroaction factor (positive feedback) exacerbating past and future climate changes as observed in ice cores from the Vostok site in Antarctica. At the geological time scale, because of the Milankovich cycles, when the astronomical parameters of the Earth orbit and its rotation axis progressively change and modify the solar irradiance at the Earth surface, temperature starts to increase. When a deglaciation period is initiated, the progressive warming of the oceans releases CO2 in the atmosphere because of its lower solubility in warmer sea water. On its turn, higher levels of CO2 in the atmosphere increase the greenhouse effect and carbon dioxide acts as an amplifier of the general warming.